Help menu sections

Navigation shortcuts

Administrative divisions of Romania


Input forms

Text input examples


Plant pictures

Display optimization

Contact us

Page last updated:  March 2018

Please read the Terms & Conditions of this site.

Navigation shortcuts

To Home Page: Click on The native Flora of Romania logo in all pages except this one & the Home page itself. The logo is placed at the extreme right of the page header. In this page, click on the Flora of Romania text at the top-left.

To Data Repository Page: Click on the "Query" logo in all Query pages. The logo is placed at the extreme left of the page header.

Go to Bottom of page

Administrative divisions of Romania

The most well-known and commonly used divisions of Romania are (a) historical provinces (rom: provincii istorice) from here on called provinces, and (b) counties (rom: județe). The provinces, much older than the counties, have their borders steeped in the middle ages. The counties are more recent; their borders or even the counties themselves have been altered several times starting with 1711. This project conforms to the present status, which was largely established in 1968, and then ammended in 1981 - when GR, CL counties were (re)established and IF county was largely reduced. Note: The counties referred to by volumes 12 and 13 of FMR are conformant to the administrative reform of 1968.

More information on Romanian counties and their history is available here.

Romania: Provinces and counties.

Provinces include a variable number of counties. For simplification purposes, FloraRO assumes that the outer borders of counties coincide with the borders of provinces, so that counties are seamlessly included. In reality, this is mostly false; even more, a number of counties have a significant percent of their territory belonging to more than one province; this is true for counties SM, SJ, AR, CS, MH, VL, OT, and VN. However, to keep things simple, SM has been included in Maramureș, SJ and AR in Crișana, CS in Banat, MH, VL and OT in Oltenia and VN in Moldova. When using queries Q_33 to Q_35 one should remember this.

A query displaying the Romanian provinces and the counties they include is available here.

Geographical divisions used on this site

Since counties are not usually relevant to botany (but have sometimes been used in botanical publications, and are handy for the travelling botanist), this project uses mainly a three-tier hierarchal system of subsequent subordinated geographical divisions, referred to as provinces, regions and areas.

Tier 1 contains the provinces as described above. For convenience, larger provinces have been further divided into 2 "subprovinces", labeled northern and southern, each covering roughly half of the province territory. Selecting a subprovince reduces the number of corresponding regions/areas and enables the users to zoom in easier on any region or area he/she targets. It should be noted, however, that these divisions are not relevant by themselves to the climate or habitats that are decisive factors for the development of native plants.

Tier 2 consists of geographical divisions of Romania, herein called regions, subordinated to the provinces.

Tier 3 consists of areas included in a region. The areas of this project have been defined more or less ad-hoc, mainly taking into consideration the placenames referred to by botanical publications and other sources used in this project. For the sake of improvement, some may be adjusted in the future; also, it should be noted that, in most cases, the areas and/or regions present today in the Data Repository do not fully cover the entire province.

However, part of the information available in different botanical sources related to placenames, protected areas etc. use counties as their geographical reference. Last not least, access points to all placenames and/or geographical areas are located in a county, so county related information has been added to this project's data in most cases. Queries Q_33 to Q_35 use counties as selection criteria to search for a placename.

Go to Top of page


Queries display the data stored in the Data Repository. They can be divided into 3 categories: taxonomy related (Q_01-02), geobotany related (Q_31-35), and source related (see Sources Section of the Main Menu).

Q_01 shows a list of accepted names and synonyms for a large part (~75%) of the species of the native Romanian flora. It also highlights the differences that exist between the 3 most recent Floras (FVC, CRR, FIS) published in Romania and 2 of the most relevant international websites that contain taxonomical information on plant species, namely TPL The Plant List and E+M Euro+Med. Note: Not all taxons have been checked across with E+M, since ALL the checking had to be done manually. The unchecked taxons have been noted with # in the E+M column. The checking process was done Sept. - Dec. 2016. Errors may exist in the displayed data, or the content of the websites may have changed since the last check.

A group is a collection of taxons containing accepted name(s) and their synonyms, refering to a single species. These can differ from one source to another, so sometimes the same taxon name appears in more than one group.

Groups and TADs (Taxon Attribute Descriptors) have been used to code the status and properties of a given taxon as listed by the 6 sources (FVC, FIS, CRR, E+M, TPL, Other) that have been cross-referenced (compared). A legend of the codes used for TADs is displayed by pressing the TADs link available at the bottom of the page.

In order to see all groups a given taxon belongs to, enter the taxon's name and select "All" from the "Sources comparison" listbox. An interesting case study is the taxon Campanula glomerata.

Q_02 shows an index of all native plant species which have been entered into this project, some of their characteristics and, where available, original photos of them.

Q_32 is the most complete query, encompassing all information on plant species-placenames (S/P) existing in the Data Repository. Because there is no way to fit all the columns of Q_32 in a single page of reasonable width, the results are displayed in 5 subsections, selectable with the drop-down list Query type. For Species Names - in any of the queries Q31-Q35 - use the accepted name of the taxon as provided by Romanian literature (see Taxonomy section). Using any other name (e.g. that of a synonym) will generate an empty result. This functionality shortcoming will hopefully be corrected in a future version.

Q_32 also offers detailed information on the sources used by this project.

Q_31, Q_33-Q_35 display species-placename (S/P) data using various geographical criteria inputs:

Note: Access to the entire content of the Data Repository - including e.g. placename information of endangered (DD, EN, CR, EX) species - is granted only to authenticated users, after contacting FloraRO. FloraRO reserves the right to selectively grant authenticated access.

Go to Top of page

Input forms

All queries have an input form that enables the users to focus query output on specific results they desire. Inputs may be drop-down lists, textboxes or checkboxes.

Drop-down lists contain a number of pre-defined options. A drop-down list can be independent or linked with other drop-down list(s). In Q_32 (which is actually a composite query), the 3 lists related to geography are linked. Any change of option in List 1 will change the contents of List 2 and List 3

Text boxes enable filters that are more flexible than drop-down lists. Any text can be written in the textbox, but sometimes rules have to be observed. Hints that list the rules are displayed in a light yellow box by hovering the mouse pointer over the text to the left of the textbox, listbox etc.

Wildcards are effective in getting the query to return more focused data. Wildcards are available in 2 ways: (1) if hint contains "Wildcards (%) enabled", the % wildcard character can be used both before and/or after the entered text; (2) if hint contains "Wildcards (%) autoinserted", the % wildcard character will be automatically added to the entered text by the form itself.

Texts may have to be entered, depending on the type of textbox, as

If hint contains "No diacritics !", no letters with diacritics shall be used - use Fartanesti instead of Fârțănești.

Go to Top of page

Text input examples

Taxon names: Enter as follows:

Authors' names: Author name abbreviations inside the taxon name can be searched as in example (e) above. Ex: %Borbás%. Diacritics are mandatory if they exist in the name.

Conservation status codes: Enter a single code (NT) or a list of codes (DD,NT,VU,EN). The order of the codes in the list is irrelevant.

Time intervals: Months (4-7) or years (1970-2005). Months: the # prefix (e.g. #3-5) will force strict inclusion in the interval (3-4, 4, 4-5 etc.); otherwise, any interval - even if partially included - will be returned (2-5, 3-4, 4, 4-9, 2-7 etc.)

Possible errors - and how to avoid them

When no rows are returned by the query, the message No matching data (0 results found). See Help. is displayed.

Only authenticated users have access to all the data available in the Data Repository. Less or no rows will be returned to an unauthenticated users for the purpose of protecting endangered species. See paragraph Queries above.

Go to Top of page

Plant pictures

Plant pictures are available in the Virtual Herbarium section of the Main Menu. Press the Pictures button.

Display optimization

This website is best viewed on a display of 1600 x 900 pixels. However, other (lower) resolutions can be accomodated by pressing Ctrl+ or Ctrl- on the numeric keypad of your keyboard. Correct rendering of the content has been successfully tested on Mozilla Firefox 27 and 52, Opera 44 and Internet Explorer 11. The preferred web browser for this website is Mozilla Firefox. You can download the latest version of the Firefox and Opera browsers anytime from the World Wide Web (Internet).

No mobile version of this website is yet available.

Contact Us can be contacted at Our answers are selective and may be delayed. We apologize for any incovenience.

Go to Top of page